The collection of material for the first Paleontology, Mineralogy and Petrology collections of the Museum started in 1971 by the geologist Evaggelos Velitzelos, who is now a professor of Paleobotanics at the University of Athens. Works started at the Vegora basin of Western Macedonia in lake deposits of the Superior Tertiary with the collection of fossil plants, two elephant teeth found near Petres village and of three more found near Sotir village.
The Museum’s research continued in Neogene deposits of Attica, Corfu, Rhodes and Carpathos for the collection of paleontological material; in Viotia, in Keratovouni area, near the monument of Cheroneia battle, for the collection of Rudists of the upper Critidic; and in Argolida, near the Sanctuary of Aesculapius in Epidaurus for the collection of Ammonites of the mid-and upper Triassic. It is a red ammonite-bearing limestone that is rich in Ammonites species of Ceratites, Asklepioceras, Johanites, Lobites, Megaphyllites, Pinacoceras, Gymnites etc. Research was also carried out in Epirus for the collection of Ammonites of the Ionion zone of Jurassic age.
The mineralogy collections of the museum were mainly constituted after research in Lavrion, the most significant mine of ancient Greece with a very large number of minerals, in Chalkidiki, Crete, Serifos, Milos, Xanthi, Naxos, Paros, Thasos and elsewhere. Rock collections were constituted after research in various geological zones of Greece, such as Paxi, Ionion, Pindos, the Pelagonic and Sub-Pelagonic zone, Rodopi, and zone of Eastern Greece.
Apart from the research of the museum, part of the collections comes from donations and purchases.
Briefly, the geology collections of the museum are today distinguished in:
- Mineral collections, including minerals from the general Greek area, an international minerals collection and a special collection of minerals from Lavrion.
- Rock collections, with rocks of Greece
- Paleontology collections, with fossils of Rudists, Ammonites and Neogene mollusks of Greece, Cephalopods, Gasteropods and Bivalve Mollusks of France (part of the significant Moazzo collection), Vertebrates of Pikermi and Samos, Pleistocenic Elephants and plant fossils of Greece.
The Minerals and Fossils that have been included in the data base belong to the collection of the Museum. They include specimens from all over the world, as well as a lot of samples from Greece. The specimens have been entered with their scientific names already existing on the labels.