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The Museum’s rock collection consists primarily of minerals from Greece. It begins with the cycle of rock, a schematic presentation of their creation and their transformation. Next, the rocks are classified in eruptives, when their matter comes partly or totally from the depths of the crust of the earth (like granite), in sedimentary, when their material in its total comes from the outside of the crust of the earth, from the destruction of preexisting rocks (like limestone), and in metamorphic, when they come from the transformation of the above, due to their descent at greater depths (like marble). Each category is accompanied by explanatory drawings and texts. In order to explain their formation, there is a series of paintings depicting the environment in which they were created. The rock collections were established following research in various geological zones of Greece: Paxi, the Ionian, the Pindus, the Pelagonic, the Subpelagonic, Rodopi and Eastern Greece.

The minerals exhibition begins with minerals from Lavrion, because of their historical importance. Next, minerals are classified according to their chemical constitution: elements (gold and mercury), Sulphides (pyrite), Oxides (quartz and limonite), Halides (Fluorite), Carbonates, Nitrates and Borates (Calcite), Sulfates, Molybdates, Chromates and Tungstates (Gyrsum), Phosphates, Vanadates, Arseniates (Vanadinite), Silicates (Tourmaline). Every mineral is accompanied by its mineral properties.

A special place in the geology hall is dedicated to a model and a map presenting and explaining the theory of lithospheric plates, the structure of the earth’s interior, the volcanism and seismicity, and the mechanism transforming the earth’s surface. There is also a series of palaeogeographical maps showing the evolution of the Mediterranean from 76 million years ago until today, and a map of the Mediterranean as it is now, with a detailed representation of its bottom.

The Museum also presents a three-dimentional satellite map of Greece, unique in its kind. It is a detailed and accurate presentation not only of the land but also of the sea surrounding the country. It is the first time such details are shown to the public. Another unique element of this map is that it is the first to present via modern satellite technology and in its whole the wider geographical area of Greece, with absolute accuracy of the data and colours, exclusively through digital techniques.

The scale of the map is 1:500.000, covering the area from approximately the 18th to the 29th meridian (1040 klms) and from the 34th to the 42nd parallel (900 klms). More specifically, it covers in the West all of the Ionian Sea to the coast of Italy and to the East it reaches Kastelorizo. Its dimensions are 209x180 cms.