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Fossils are relics of plant or animal organisms which have remained in the Earth’s interior for millions of years and with time have been turned to stone.

The palaeontological exhibit begins with a diagram of the history of life, the creation of volcanoes and mountains, and the earth’s climate in various geological eras. It is accompanied by a rich collection of characteristic fossils in chronological order that presents the evolution of life on earth from the Precambrian era until our days. The oldest specimen dates from 2, 7 billion years ago. Each era is accompanied by a painted representation of the paleoenvironment and the organisms that lived in it.

A special display presents characteristic fossil specimens that testify the process and forms of fossilization. It also contains fossils and representations of animals from Samosm, Pikermi and other localities. Special emphasis is given to the evolution of the horse, while a map shows the animals living in Greece during the Tertiary era i.e. from 1.8 million years to 10.000 years ago (mastodonts, deinotheriums, rhinoceros, etc).

A separate display presents two special groups of fossils, the ammonites and the nautilus. The former were very widespread but eventually disappeared, while the latter were much less widespread but still exist today.

Finally, in the zoology department, there is a replica of a dinosaur, the Triceratops, 7, 16 meters in length, the original being in the Natural History Museum of New York.

A special display is dedicated to man, his first appearance on earth and his development. It contains replicas of the most important human fossils, representations, graphic images, stone and bone tools etc.